PAST STEEL DECK RESEARCH
Unlocking the Potential of Steel Deck Systems
Discover the Key Findings and Groundbreaking Insights Unveiled through Research Efforts undertaken and funded by the Steel Deck Institute.
Completed Research Projects
The Steel Deck Institute’s past research projects have been instrumental in advancing the industry’s understanding of steel deck systems. The findings on seismic performance, flexural capacity, and diaphragm design methods have contributed to improved safety and efficiency in steel deck construction. By informing codes and standards and fostering innovation, SDI’s research has provided valuable tools for engineers and architects to optimize the use of steel deck systems and push the boundaries of modern construction.
This report focuses on the in-plane stiffness of concrete-filled steel deck diaphragms in building structures. It discusses the use of diaphragm stiffness in U.S. building codes and presents the results of a testing program conducted on cantilever diaphragm specimens to validate a proposed prediction model for the initial stiffness of concrete-filled steel deck diaphragms. The report also includes examples illustrating the application of the prediction model in calculating diaphragm deflections for different configurations, highlighting the contributions of shear deformations, bending deformations, and shear transfer connections to the overall deflection.
This dissertation examines the seismic performance of steel deck diaphragms, focusing on the effects of rigid and flexible diaphragms, diaphragm and wall interactions, and the application of topology optimization for diaphragm design improvements. Through mass-spring models and parametric studies, the research investigates the seismic response of diaphragms considering variations in stiffness, mass distribution, and inelasticity levels in the vertical and horizontal lateral force resisting systems (LFRS). The findings highlight the dependency of force demands on diaphragm and wall properties, dynamic amplification effects, reduction of diaphragm forces by reducing LFRS capacity, and the enhanced performance of optimized diaphragm designs in terms of stiffness, capacity, and energy dissipation.
This report summarizes the results of nonlinear response history analyses conducted on a three-dimensional model of steel buildings with special concentric braced frames (SCBFs). The study investigates the performance of different diaphragm designs, comparing traditional methods defined by ASCE 7-16 12.10.1 with alternative procedures specified in ASCE 7-16 12.10.3, which introduce a diaphragm-specific seismic response modification coefficient, Rs. The findings demonstrate the sensitivity of SCBF building performance to diaphragm design and recommend the use of the alternative design procedures with specific Rs values for concrete-filled steel deck floors and bare steel deck roofs. Further research is needed to refine collapse criteria and provide clarity on expected inelasticity when employing different combinations of R and Rs in the vertical and horizontal lateral force resisting systems.
The Steel Diaphragm Innovation Initiative (SDII) is a collaborative partnership between industry, academia, and government aimed at enhancing the seismic performance of steel floor and roof diaphragms in steel buildings. This report presents the final findings for Year 5, marking the successful completion of the 5-year SDII plan.
This report provides tutorials that assist engineers in accurately modeling and analyzing structural systems with non-doubly symmetric sections using the latest version of MASTAN2. Additionally, the report validates a MASTAN2 model with non-doubly symmetric sections by comparing its results with those obtained from a small test program.
This paper analyzes experimental data and compares it to two numerical analysis methods for light gauge cold-formed steel roof decks. The flexural capacity of the roof deck is determined based on the first failure mode of the roof deck. The comparison evaluates the accuracy of the effective width method and the direct strength method in predicting the behavior of the roof deck. The results show that the effective width method is more accurate for thinner gauge decks, while the direct strength method is more accurate for thicker gauge decks. Both methods can be used to determine the deck’s capacity, and the choice depends on the specific application.
The objective of this project was to assess the current provisions of AISI S100-16 North American Specification for Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members regarding screw connections subjected to shear and tension loads. A recent study by the Steel Deck Institute (Sputo 2017) highlighted potential issues with screw pull-over, especially in thinner sheets and/or lower ductility scenarios.
The objective of this project was to assess the strength determination provisions for arc spot welds based on recent research studies. The findings of this study are expected to influence future editions of AISI S100 and provide guidance for future research and development endeavors.
With the recent reorganization of the AISI S100 Standard, the Direct Strength Method (DSM) and the Equivalent Width Method (EWM) now hold equal significance in determining the strength of cold-formed steel cross sections. While previous DSM studies mainly focused on C and Z profiles, little research has been conducted on panel sections, particularly steel deck sections. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the behavior and usable strength of existing floor and roof deck sections using both DSM and EWM. The Cornell University – Finite Strip Method (CUFSM) software was employed for elastic buckling analysis, considering the continuous nature of installed deck sections. Flexural capacity was analyzed for both positive and negative flexure to account for gravity loading and uplift. Graphical representations were developed to illustrate the relationship between DSM strength and EWM strength ratios in relation to the material’s width-to-thickness ratio. The study revealed that DSM predicts lower flexural strength than EWM for sections with wider and thinner compression flanges (higher b/t ratios).